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theolduvaigorge:

  • by Adrián, Pablos, Asiemez-OlivenciaAlfonsGara-PérezIgnaciMartínezCarloLorenzo and Juan Luis Arsuaga

“Stature estimation is as standard procedure in the fields of forensic and biological anthropology, bioarchaeology and paleanthropology, in order to gain biological insights into the individuals/populations studied. The most accurate stature estimation method is based on anatomical reconstruction (i.e., the Fully method), followed by type I regression equations (e.g., ordinary least squares—OLS) based on long bones, preferably from the lower limb. In some cases, due to the fragmentary nature of the osseous material recovered, stature estimates have to rely on other elements, such as foot remains. In this study, we explore stature estimation based on different foot bones: the talus, calcaneus, and metatarsals 1-4 in Afro- and Euroamericans of both sexes. 

The approach undertaken in this study is novel for two reasons. First, individual estimates for each bone are provided, and tarsals and metatarsals are combined in order to obtain more accurate estimates. Second, robust statistical methods are based on type I regression equations are used, namely least trimmed squares (LTS). Our results show that the best individual bones for estimating statue are the first and second metatarsal and both the talus and the calcaneus. The combination of a tarsal and a metatarsal bone slightly improves the accuracy of the stature estimate” (read more/open access).

(Open access sourceForensic Science International 226-299e1-299e7, 2013; top image: Web MD)

(via scientificillustration)

Foot reference. Right foot.

ewilloughby:

Another diagram for the upcoming evolution book!
Everything but pigeon referenced from Greg Paul diagrams; pigeon referenced from various photographs of pigeon skeletons I could find. The position of metatarsal III on the Deinonychus pes is modeled after Fowler et al. 2011.
Two interesting points as an animal becomes more “birdlike”: the hallux moves towards greater mobility, and the tarsometatarsus fuses. The tarsometatarsus of Archaeopteryx represents a unique semi-fused “transition” state between unfused and totally fused metatarsal bones.

ewilloughby:

Another diagram for the upcoming evolution book!

Everything but pigeon referenced from Greg Paul diagrams; pigeon referenced from various photographs of pigeon skeletons I could find. The position of metatarsal III on the Deinonychus pes is modeled after Fowler et al. 2011.

Two interesting points as an animal becomes more “birdlike”: the hallux moves towards greater mobility, and the tarsometatarsus fuses. The tarsometatarsus of Archaeopteryx represents a unique semi-fused “transition” state between unfused and totally fused metatarsal bones.

(via scientificillustration)

hammpix:

Folks welcomed the hand reference I posted, so here’s some foot reference.

As an artist you’ll draw A LOT of feet, especially feet that REST ON THE GROUND. Don’t be one of those artists who hides feet behind grass or mist all the time. Print these out and draw ‘em.

I included the knees because you’ll need to know how feet connect with legs; draw ‘em up to the knee.

(via theartreferences)

kangarookevin:

nayrosartrefs:

Some awesome leg tutorials done by n3m0s1s.

Because legs are the hardest thing to draw for me. Seriously, I’ll have a character with an awesome upper torso, then spaghetti legs.

(via spatboj)

alpha621tutorialblog:

helpfulharrie:

!! Woah guys! Pixelovely’s new tools are finally out, one for hands & feet, and one for faces!

There’s now 429 photos of hands & feet, and 314 photos of faces. Dang!!

This is super cool news and I certainly can’t wait to start using them haha

I’ve got tons of tutorials on hands, feet and faces in their relevant tags, so be sure to check those out too nwn

Sweeeeet~ I’mma have more fun with this one.

z-raid:

haxorkitty:

References I found and use for doodling- 

Hopefully you all like?

Sources: